Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a non-communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment options for CKD patients are kidney transplantation, hemodialysis, and peritoneal dialysis. Kidney transplantation remains the best option for CKD patients, which has the best Quality of Life compared to other therapies. The cost of therapy for CKD patients is relatively high. Even in developed countries, renal replacement therapy costs are still a burden on the health system and a public health problem. Therefore, this study aims to compare the cost of care for CKD patients undergoing kidney transplantation, hemodialysis, and peritoneal hemodialysis at dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Indonesia.
Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent kidney transplantation, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or hemodialysis from January 2018 to December 2020 at dr. Sardjito General Hospital. We reviewed the medical records, and the data collected was ordinal, numeric, and categorical data. The data was then coded and processed using SPSS version 25.0. The results are presented in descriptive form, tables, or diagrams.
Results: In this study, we found 87 CKD samples. Thirty patients underwent kidney transplantation, 27 patients underwent CAPD, and 30 patients were randomly assigned to undergo routine hemodialysis. Based on the data obtained from this study, the average cost incurred in the first year for patients undergoing kidney transplantation at dr. Sardjito General Hospital amounted to 384.6 million IDR. For CAPD patients, it was 93.7 million IDR, and the average cost for patients undergoing outpatient hemodialysis routinely was 104.1 million IDR. The estimated average cost incurred in the third year after the procedure for kidney transplant patients is 393.7 million IDR, CAPD patients 273.7 million IDR, and patients undergoing routine hemodialysis 307.8 million IDR. The estimated average cost incurred for CKD patients undergoing kidney transplantation was 402.7 million IDR in the fifth year. For CAPD patients was 273.7 million IDR, and for patients undergoing routine hemodialysis was 511.5 million IDR.Conclusions: The results showed a difference in costs between kidney transplantation, CAPD and hemodialysis. The kidney transplant cost is much more expensive than CAPD and hemodialysis, but the monthly cost is much cheaper than the other two procedures. In the third year estimation, the costs incurred for CAPD and hemodialysis will be close to the costs incurred for kidney transplantation. In the fifth year, the costs for kidney transplantation will be smaller than the costs for CAPD and hemodialysis.