Original Articles

In-vitro anti-bacterial effectiveness test of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and ethanol extract of green meniran leaves (Phyllanthus niruri Linn) on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis bacterial colony

Ni Kadek Eka Widiadnyani , Putu Ratna Kusumadewi Giri, I Gusti Ayu Fienna Novianthi Sidiartha, I Ketut Tunas

Ni Kadek Eka Widiadnyani
Bachelor of Dentistry and Dentistry Profession Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia.. Email: eka.widiadnyani@unud.ac.id

Putu Ratna Kusumadewi Giri
Bachelor of Dentistry and Dentistry Profession Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia.

I Gusti Ayu Fienna Novianthi Sidiartha
Bachelor of Dentistry and Dentistry Profession Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali, Indonesia.

I Ketut Tunas
Management of Health Information Department, Universitas Bali Internasional, Bali, Indonesia.
Online First: December 29, 2021 | Cite this Article
Widiadnyani, N., Giri, P., Sidiartha, I., Tunas, I. 2021. In-vitro anti-bacterial effectiveness test of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and ethanol extract of green meniran leaves (Phyllanthus niruri Linn) on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis bacterial colony. Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science 15(2): 180-184. DOI:10.15562/ijbs.v15i2.352


Background: Necrotic teeth with periapical lesions often experience root canal treatment failure. Enterococcus faecalis bacteria cause 85-90% of root canal infections. 2% Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) can eliminate Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but cannot dissolve necrotic tissue, while green meniran phytochemical compounds (Phyllantus niruri Linn) have anti-bacterial properties. This study aims to determine the effectiveness, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) between green meniran leaf extract with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and meniran extract only against the growth of Enterococcus faecalis.

Method: This is an in vitro experimental study with a broth microdilution method consisting of two treatment groups. The negative control contained BHIB media and 0.05 ml of bacteria; the positive control had 0.05 ml of bacteria with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, the group one consisted of BHIB media, bacteria and various concentrations of meniran extract. In contrast, group two consisted of BHIB media, bacteria, various concentrations of green meniran with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate. Data were analyzed using the One Way Anova test with LSD test.

Results: Compared with negative control, in group one, we found the MIC of meniran extract was 3.125% with 94% anti-bacterial power, and the MBC was 6.25% with no bacterial growth. In group 2, we found the MIC of meniran extract and the 2% chlorhexidine digluconate was 0.78% with 9.3% anti-bacterial power, while the MBC was 1.56%.

Conclusion: The increasing concentration of meniran extract also increases the anti-bacterial effect. A combination of meniran extract and 2% chlorhexidine digluconate give better anti-bacterial effects than meniran extract only. 

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