Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

In-vitro anti-bacterial effectiveness test of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and ethanol extract of green meniran leaves (Phyllanthus niruri Linn) on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis bacterial colony

Abstract

Background: Necrotic teeth with periapical lesions often experience root canal treatment failure. Enterococcus faecalis bacteria cause 85-90% of root canal infections. 2% Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) can eliminate Enterococcus faecalis bacteria but cannot dissolve necrotic tissue, while green meniran phytochemical compounds (Phyllantus niruri Linn) have anti-bacterial properties. This study aims to determine the effectiveness, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) between green meniran leaf extract with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and meniran extract only against the growth of Enterococcus faecalis.

Method: This is an in vitro experimental study with a broth microdilution method consisting of two treatment groups. The negative control contained BHIB media and 0.05 ml of bacteria; the positive control had 0.05 ml of bacteria with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate, the group one consisted of BHIB media, bacteria and various concentrations of meniran extract. In contrast, group two consisted of BHIB media, bacteria, various concentrations of green meniran with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate. Data were analyzed using the One Way Anova test with LSD test.

Results: Compared with negative control, in group one, we found the MIC of meniran extract was 3.125% with 94% anti-bacterial power, and the MBC was 6.25% with no bacterial growth. In group 2, we found the MIC of meniran extract and the 2% chlorhexidine digluconate was 0.78% with 9.3% anti-bacterial power, while the MBC was 1.56%.

Conclusion: The increasing concentration of meniran extract also increases the anti-bacterial effect. A combination of meniran extract and 2% chlorhexidine digluconate give better anti-bacterial effects than meniran extract only. 

Section

References

  1. Stashenko, P. Interrelationship of Dental Pulp and Apical Periodontitis. In: Hargreaves KM, Goodis HE, eds. Seltzer and Bender’s Dental Pulp. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. 2002;389-409.
  2. Kishen A, George S, Kumar R. Enterococcus faecalis-mediated biomineralized biofilm formation on root canal dentine in vitro. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006;77(2):406-15. DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.30622. PMID: 16444682.
  3. Shahani MN and Reddy VVS. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity
  4. of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to72 h: an in vitro study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dentistry. 2011: p29.
  5. Wang QQ, Zhang CF, Chu HC, Zhu XF. Prevalence of Enterococcus Faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis. International Journal of Oral Science. 2012;4(1): p19-23.
  6. Grossman, LI., Oliet, S., Rio, CED. Ilmu endodontik dalam praktek. Edisi 12. Jakarta: EGC. 2010: p25-9.
  7. Siqueira, J.F., and Rôças, I.N. Endodontic irrigation. In: Endodontic irrigation. 2015: p272–276.
  8. Gomes BP, Vianna ME, Zaia AA, Almeida JF, Souza-Filho FJ, Ferraz CC. Chlorhexidine in endodontics. Braz Dent J. 2013;24(2):89-102. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201302188
  9. Herrera DR, Durand-Ramirez JE, Falcão A, Silva EJ, Santos EB, Gomes BP. Antimicrobial activity and substantivity of Uncaria tomentosa in infected root canal dentin. Braz Oral Res. 2016;30(1).
  10. Clegg MS, Vertucci FJ, Walker C, et al. The effect of exposure to irrigant solutions on apical dentin biofilms in vitro. J Endod. 2006; 32: 434-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2005.07.002
  11. Athanssiadis B, Abbott PV, dan Walsh LJ. The Use of Calcium Hydroxide, Antibiotics and Biocides as Antimicrobial Medicaments in Endodontics, Aust Dent J. 2007; 52: S64-S82. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1834-7819.2007.tb00527.x
  12. Haapasalo M, Wei Qian. Irrigants and intracanal medication. In: Ingle JI, Bakland LK, Baumgartner JC, editor. Ingle’s Endodontics 6. 6th Ed. Ontario: BC Decker Inc, Hamilton. 2008: p 997-1008.
  13. Amin, ZA, Alshawsh MA, Kassim M, Ali HM, Abdulla MA. 2013. Gene expression profiling reveals the underlying molecular mechanism of hepatoprotective effect of Phyllanthus niruri on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague Dawley rats. MC Complement Altern Med. 2013; 13(1): 1-10. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-160
  14. Gunawan I, Bawa I, Sutrisnayanti N. Isolasi dan identifikasi senyawa terpenoid yang aktif antibakteri pada herba meniran (Phyllanthus niruri Linn). Jurnal Kimia. 2008; I2(1): 31-39
  15. Tjandrawinata RR, S Maat, D Noviarny. Effect of standardized Phyllanthus niruri extract on changes in immunologic parameters. Correlation between preclinical and clinical studies. Medika. 2005; 31(6): 367-371
  16. Cushnie TP and Lamb AJ. Antimicrobial Activity of Flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005; 26(5): 343-356. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2005.09.002
  17. Shohaib T, Shafique M, Dhanya N, Divakar MC. Importance of Flavonoids in Therapeutics. HJD. Med. 2011; 3(1): 1-18.
  18. Desiana TKH, Sudirman A, Juniarti DE. Daya Antibakteri Ekstrak Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri linn) Terhadap Bakteri Enterococcus faecalis. Conservative Dentistry Journal. 2016;6(2): 41-46.
  19. Zuo GY, Menga FY, Haob XY, Zhanga YL, Wanga GC, Xua GL. Anti-bacterial Alkaloids from Chelidonium majus Linn (Papaveraceae) against Clinical Isolates of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci. 2009;11 (4): 90-94
  20. Lim SY, Bauermeister A, Kjonaas RA, Gosh, S. Phytol-Based Novel Adjuvants in Vaccine Formulation: 2. Assessment of Efficacyin the Induction of Protective Immune Responses to Lethal Bacterial Infections in Mice. 2006;4(5). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-8518-4-5
  21. Mohammedi Z, Jafarzadeh H, Shalavi S. Antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine as a root canal irrigant: a literature review. J Oral Sci. 2014;56(2): 99-103. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.56.99

How to Cite

Widiadnyani, N. K. E., Giri, P. R. K., Sidiartha, I. G. A. F. N., & Tunas, I. K. (2021). In-vitro anti-bacterial effectiveness test of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and ethanol extract of green meniran leaves (Phyllanthus niruri Linn) on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis bacterial colony. Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science, 15(2), 180–184. https://doi.org/10.15562/ijbs.v15i2.352

HTML
17

Total
1

Share

Search Panel

Ni Kadek Eka Widiadnyani
Google Scholar
Pubmed
IJBS Journal


Putu Ratna Kusumadewi Giri
Google Scholar
Pubmed
IJBS Journal


I Gusti Ayu Fienna Novianthi Sidiartha
Google Scholar
Pubmed
IJBS Journal


I Ketut Tunas
Google Scholar
Pubmed
IJBS Journal