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Severe diabetic ketoacidosis with cerebral edema and acute kidney failure: a case report


Background: In 2018, the Indonesian Pediatric Society stated that there were 1,220 children suffering from Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. This might be an iceberg phenomenon due to a large number of children and adolescents in Indonesia. Diabetic ketoacidosis is one of the Type 1  Diabetes Mellitus acute complications that could be fatal. The problem is that our society isn't familiar with this condition, and it leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment.

Case: A 16 – year – old girl was hospitalized due to right lower abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, and fever for 3 days. The next morning, she became unconscious with a Glasgow Coma Scale of E1V1M6. Her blood tests showed blood glucose levels of 551 mg/dL, C – Peptide of 0,65 ng/mL, pH of 6,81, and cHCO3 of 3 mmol/L. Her urine tests showed ketonuria of +4. She was diagnosed with Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Cerebral Edema. She received 8 litre/minute of O2 NRM, 10 ml/kg of 0,9% NaCl in 1 hour continued with 1,5 times maintenance need + 5 mmol/kg/day of KCl, 0,1 IU/kg/hour of insulin, and 1 g/kg of mannitol. Renal function monitoring showed daily increases in serum creatinine to 9,2 mg/dL on the day – 7. This pre-renal acute kidney injury was thought to be due to dehydration. She was then referred to a higher-level hospital for hemodialysis.

Conclusions: Diabetic Ketoacidosis in children shows a wide range of clinical manifestations. Therefore, awareness of this condition is of utmost importance in reducing patients' morbidity and mortality.



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How to Cite

Hsieh, P. P., Wijaya, T., Melinda, F., & Suryawan, I. W. B. (2022). Severe diabetic ketoacidosis with cerebral edema and acute kidney failure: a case report. Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science, 16(1), 61–65.




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