Introduction: Estrogen Receptor 1 (ESR1) expression has appeared to impact prostate cancer advancement significantly. This study aims to compare the expression of ESR-1 in BPH and prostate cancer.
Methods: The samples were collected from a single-center hospital from 2014 to 2020. We exclude samples in which RNA concentration is under the minimum standard allowance to proceed. Deparaffinize formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and RNAs extraction by manufacturer’s protocol with slight modification was performed. The RNA expression was investigated by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. We categorized into Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH), Non-Metastatic Prostate Cancer (Non-MPCa) and Metastatic Prostate Cancer (MPCa) groups. The One Way ANOVA was used to analyze the data.
Result: The 40 samples included 15 BPH, 6 non-metastatic prostate cancer, 19 metastatic prostate cancer. Expression of ESR1 in BPH (6.9 ± 3.8) compared to expression of ESR1 in MPCa (12.7 ± 9.5), and Non-MPCa (2.6 ± 1.0) shows a significant difference. Expression of ESR1 in Non-MPCa compared to MPCa also indicates a significant difference in which expression MPCa shows an increased level of ESR1 expression.
Conclusion: This study shows that ESR 1 has significant expression differences in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, non-Metastatic Prostate Cancer, and Metastatic Prostate Cancer. The highest ESR1 expression is found in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. In conclusion, higher ESR1 expression is related to metastatic prostate cancer.