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Tinnitus characteristics and risk factors in the Bali region

  • Gde Ngurah Indraguna Pinatih ,
  • Eka Putra Setiawan ,
  • Ni Putu Oktaviani Rinika Pranitasari ,
  • I Putu Santhi Dewantara ,
  • Ketut Tadeus Max Nurcahya Pinatih ,
  • I Made Nudi Arthana ,


Introduction: It has been recognized that suitable external sounds can reduce or even make tinnitus impossible to hear. The working principle of sound therapy will be used to create a new tool or approach that suits the conditions of Indonesian society. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of tinnitus and its associated risk factors.

Method: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Denpasar City, Gianyar Regency, and Badung Regency for one year. Patients who visited the ENT doctors' practices in these areas were interviewed with prepared instruments. The patients were then subjected to clinical and audiometric examinations. The data will be analyzed descriptively to get an overview of tinnitus's sociodemographic and clinical characteristics.

Result: A total of 101 participants were included in this study. Most tinnitus patients were unilateral on the left side of the ear. The most common sound is ringing, up to 70.3% of 101 research subjects, followed by sound types such as pulse and roaring sound. Furthermore, the frequency and amplitude of tinnitus sounds are quite varied, but the majority is dominated by high frequencies (3000 - 8000Hz).  Based on the ear affected, the largest number of tinnitus sufferers were found in the left ear (47.0%). In this study, 82 people (81.2%) had a history of frequently using earphones, while 19 other people never used earphones in everyday life. Among all participants, 95 people (94.1%) were not exposed to noise at work.

Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of the tinnitus sound type were mostly ringing sounds, followed by pulse-like sounds and buzzing sounds. The frequency and amplitude of tinnitus sounds quite varied. Stress factors and the use of earphones occur in most tinnitus sufferers.



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How to Cite

Gde Ngurah Indraguna Pinatih, Eka Putra Setiawan, Ni Putu Oktaviani Rinika Pranitasari, I Putu Santhi Dewantara, Pinatih, K. T. M. N., & I Made Nudi Arthana. (2023). Tinnitus characteristics and risk factors in the Bali region. Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science, 17(2), 257–261.




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Gde Ngurah Indraguna Pinatih
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Eka Putra Setiawan
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Ni Putu Oktaviani Rinika Pranitasari
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I Putu Santhi Dewantara
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Ketut Tadeus Max Nurcahya Pinatih
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I Made Nudi Arthana
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