Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

The use of sitting grinder reduces musculoskeletal complaints disorders, workload, and increases work productivity of blacksmith in Tabanan, Bali, Indonesia


Introduction: Blacksmithing is one of the small industries in Tabanan Regency. Their work is passed down from generation to generation as a responsibility of their ancestors. One of the processes in making household appliances is to use a grinder to smooth and sharpen knives. In this process, the worker holds the vibrating grinder, which weighs more than 1.5 kg, with one hand, and the other hand holds the knife to be smoothed. Working with hands exposed to vibration for a long period of time is a burden that will cause complaints and diseases for workers such as raynaud's syndrome, tenosynovitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the use of ergonomic sitting grinders to reduce musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), workload, and increase work productivity of blacksmith  in Tabanan Regency.

Methods: This study is an experimental model. The population was blacksmith workers in Tabanan Regency. Samples were determined based on small industry groups by simple random sampling. The sample size was determined based on the score of musculoskeletal complaints so that the number of small industry groups was obtained as many as 3 groups. Each group consisted of 11 people so the sample size was 33 people. It was determined that the sample size in this study was 33 workers in 3 small industry groups.

Result: this study obtained decreased musculoskeletal complaints by 51.51% in the control group with treatment I, and by 51.75% in the control group with treatment II. There was a decrease in workload by 13.71% in the control group with treatment I and by 15.60% in the control group with treatment II. There was an increase in work productivity by 20.93% in the control group with treatment I and by 24.44% in the control group with treatment II.

Conclusion: There is a significant decrease in musculoskeletal complaints and workload between the Control group with treatment I and the control group with Treatment II (p<0.05), and there is a significant increase in work productivity in the control group with treatment I and in the control group with treatment II.



  1. Suma'mur PK. Work safety and prevention of accidental work injury. Jakarta: CV Haji Masagung; 2013.
  2. Tarwaka. Industrial Ergonomics, Ergonomic Knowledge Basics and Workplace Applications. Surakarta: Harapan Press; 2015.
  3. Nafasa K, Yuniarti Y, Nurdjaman N, Cice T, Caecielia W. Relationship between Working Period and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Complaints in Computer User Employees at Bank BJB Subang Branch. Journal of Health & Science Integration. 2019;1(1):40-44.
  4. Vihlborg P, Ing LB, Bernt L, Lars GG, Pal G.. Association between vibration exposure and hand-arm vibration symptoms in a Swedish mechanical industry. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 2017;62:77-81.
  5. Adewusi SS, Rakheja P, Marcotte M, Thomas M. Distributed vibration power absorption of the human hand-arm system in different postures coupled with vibrating handles and power tools. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics. 2013; 43(4):363-74.
  6. Brocal FA, Sanchez C, González JL, Fuentes MA, Sebastian M. Proposed methodology for the study of the level of emerging risk from exposure to hand-arm vibrations in manufacturing environments. Procedia Manufacturing. 2017;13:1373-80.
  7. Sitompul Y. Occupational Risks with the Incidence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (Cts). Scientific Journal. 2019;5(3):1-7.
  8. Hadi WT. The Relationship Between Workload and Work Attitude with Musculoskeletal Complaints in Pelanggul Workers in Candi Industrial Area, Semarang City. Thesis. Semarang: Faculty of Sports Science, State University of Semarang; 2011.
  9. Indonesian Ministry of Health. Kepmenkes RI No. 48 Year 2016 on Office Occupational Safety and Health Standards. Jakarta: Ministry of Health RI; 2016.
  10. Newington L, Claire H, Karen WB. Europe PMC funders group carpal tunnel syndrome and work. Clin Rheumatol. 2015;29(3):440–53.
  11. Nurhikmah. Factors Associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in Furniture Workers in Benda District, Tangerang City. Journal. Jakarta: State Islamic University; 2011.
  12. Ulfah N, Harwanti S, Nurcahyo PJ. Work Attitude and Risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Laundry Workers. National Journal of Public Health. 2014; 8(7):1-7.
  13. Arjani IAMS, Ariati NN, Sundari CDWH, Dhyanaputri IGAS. Improving Ergonomic Work Attitudes Reducing of Musculoskeletal Disorders, Workload and Increasing Work Productivity of Pande Besi in Gubug Village Tabanan, BaliIndonesia. Eastern Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences. 2021;1(1):1-6.
  14. Santosa IG. Improving Working Conditions and the Environment with Ergonomic Interventions Improving Product Performance and Quality in Dodol Craftsmen in Penglatan Village, Buleleng (Dissertation). Denpasar: Post Graduate Program in Ergonomy, Udayana University; 2012.
  15. Setiawan H. Ergonomic-Based Wet Blanket Work Station Design Improves Quality of Life and Productivity of Workers at PT Sunan Rubber Palembang, South Sumatra Province. [Dissertation]. Denpasar: Post Graduate Program in Ergonomy Udayana University; 2013.
  16. Yusuf M. The Design of Plastic Mulch Hole Maker and Work System with Ergonomic Intervention Increase Productivity and Income of the Farmers in Bedugul Bali [Executive Summary Dissertation]. Denpasar: Post Graduate Program in Ergonomy Udayana University; 2016.
  17. Diana RS. Relationship between Standing Work Attitude and Musculoskeletal Complaints in Weaving Workers at PT Delta Marlin Dunia Tekstil Kebakkramat Karanganyar. Thesis. Surakarta: Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret; 2012.
  18. Notoatmodjo S. Health Education and Behavior. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta; 2012.
  19. Setyowati D, Shaluhiyah Z, Widjasena B. Causes of Occupational Fatigue in Furniture Workers. J Erg Int Med. 2014:386-392.
  20. Arjani IAMS, Ariati NN, Dewi Widhya Hana Sundari C. Furnace Redesign to Reduce Levels of Dust in the Air, Fatigue, Workload, and Increasing Blacksmith Productivity in Batu Sangiang Village, Tabanan, Bali-Indonesia. Journal of Global Pharma Technology. 2019;11(8):21-27.
  21. Ruliati LP, Adiputra N, Sutjana DP, Sutajaya IM. Modification of Working Condition Based on Ergo THK Reducing Workload, Muscle Tension, and Fatigue of Rice Milling Workers in J Village. In AIP Conference Proceedings. 2017;020-042.
  22. Santosa IG, Yusuf M. The Application of a Drayer Solar Energy Hybrid to Decrease Workload and Increase Dodol Production in Bali. International Research Journal of Engineering, IT & Scientific Research. 2017;3:95-101.
  23. Dinata IMK. Pouring Tools Based on Total Ergonomic Approach Improve Physiological Responses and Increase Worker Productivity on Steamed Sponge Cake Industry in Denpasar. ICOSTH proceeding; 2019.
  24. Iva M, Hari P. Work System Improvement to Increase Employee Productivity. Journal of Pasti. 2016;10(1):98-107.
  25. Purnomo H, Manuaba A, Adiputra N. Work System with Total Ergonomics Approach to Reduce Musculoskeletal Complaints, Fatigue and Workload and Increase Productivity of Pottery Industry Workers in Kasongan Bantul. Journal of Biology Medicine and Biochemistry. 2012;3(1):22-29.
  26. Rusni NW, Tirtayasa K, Muliarta IM. Workplace Streching Exerise and Giving Sweet Tea Improve Physiological Response and Increase The Productivity among Tailors in PT Fussion Hawai. The Indonesian Journal of Ergonomics. 2017;3:1-10.
  27. Santosa IG, Sutarna I. Use of Solar Energy Hybrid Drayer with TechnoErgonomic Application to Increase Productivity of Dodol Workers in Buleleng Bali. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2018;953:012-013.

How to Cite

Arjani, I. A. M. S., Hana Sundari, C. D. W. ., Mastra, N. ., Mahayana, I. M. B. ., & Swastini, I. G. A. A. P. . (2023). The use of sitting grinder reduces musculoskeletal complaints disorders, workload, and increases work productivity of blacksmith in Tabanan, Bali, Indonesia. Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science, 17(2), 282–288.




Search Panel

Ida Ayu Made Sri Arjani
Google Scholar
IJBS Journal

Cokorda Dewi Widhya Hana Sundari
Google Scholar
IJBS Journal

Nyoman Mastra
Google Scholar
IJBS Journal

I Made Bulda Mahayana
Google Scholar
IJBS Journal

I Gusti Agung Ayu Putu Swastini
Google Scholar
IJBS Journal