Introduction: Indonesia is one of the countries with a high TB-HIV prevalence. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is only being administered to approximately 42% of TB-HIV patients. The low utilization of ART can be attributed, in part, to the delayed initiation of treatment. Nonetheless, starting ART in these people at an early stage poses risks, owing to the increased likelihood of drug-drug interactions and the manifestation of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) side effects when combined with anti-TB medication. Postponing ART, on the other hand, can hasten illness progression and increase the risk of death.
Methods: A literature review was conducted to assess the effects of early ART (within four weeks of getting anti-TB) against delayed ART initiation (at least eight weeks after receiving anti-TB) in individuals co-infected with TB and HIV. The data was obtained by a comprehensive electronic search using the PubMed and Science Direct databases.
Results: The findings of our study suggest that there was no statistically significant disparity in mortality rates between the early ART group and the delayed ART group. The initial ART cohort had a markedly elevated susceptibility to encountering an IRIS occurrence, particularly among individuals with a CD4 count below 50 cells per cubic millimeter.
Conclusion: In summary, the strategy of delaying the initiation of ART in patients co-infected with TB-HIV is seen as preferable when compared to the approach of early treatment. The frequency of IRIS events is a significant determinant in determining the optimal timing of ART initiation in individuals co-infected with TB-HIV.