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Unveiling the enigma: exploring the controversies of chordee pathophysiology and its treatment

  • Joko Pitoyo ,
  • Alvarino Alvarino ,
  • Eryanti Darwin ,
  • Yanwirasti Yanwirasti ,


Chordee, a congenital penile anomaly characterized by an abnormal downward curvature, presents a complex medical challenge due to its multifaceted etiology and varied treatment options. This comprehensive review delves into the intricacies of chordee, exploring its genetic, hormonal, anatomical, and environmental underpinnings. We examine the normal developmental processes of the penis, highlighting how deviations can lead to chordee and explain the role of genetic factors in its pathogenesis. The influence of hormonal factors, particularly androgens, in the development and morphology of the penis, and the impact of environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals on penile development, are thoroughly analyzed. Treatment modalities for chordee range from surgical techniques to conservative management, each with its controversies and challenges. This review aims to provide a holistic understanding of chordee, offering insights into its complex pathophysiology and guiding clinicians in making informed decisions in patient care.



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How to Cite

Pitoyo, J., Alvarino, A., Darwin, E. ., & Yanwirasti, Y. (2024). Unveiling the enigma: exploring the controversies of chordee pathophysiology and its treatment. Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science, 18(1), 26–30.




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