Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Antibacterial activity of vaname shrimp chitosan gel against Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria in mothers with periodontal disease


Background: Dental plaque is a breeding ground for Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria which causes periodontal disease. Chitosan is a compound derived from the deacetylation of chitin in marine animals such as shrimp which has been proven to be antibacterial, non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable. During pregnancy there is an increase in acid levels in the oral cavity, as well as exposure to stomach acid on the teeth and gingiva which results in inflammation of the gingiva and periodontal tissue. This study aims to determine the activity of chitosan in inhibiting the growth of Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria in postnatal mothers with periodontal disease.

Method: True experimental randomized pre-test and post-test control group design, with topical administration of 2% chitosan gel to mothers with gingivitis in Badung Regency, Bali. The sample was 14 postpartum mothers, divided into control groups (given base gel) and treatment (2% chitosan gel). The degree of gingivitis is measured using Modified Gingival Indexes (MGI), for antibacterial by calculating the number of Phorphyromonas gingivalis deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) copies using Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).

Results: Descriptively, there was a difference in the decrease in the average MGI index in the control and treatment groups on the 7th and 21st days, as well as in the average number of bacteria. The Wilcoxon test showed p<0.05, in the control and treatment groups, meaning there was a significant decrease in the MGI index on the 7th and 21st days. Calculation of the number of Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria showed p<0.05, meaning there was a decrease in the number in the control and treatment groups. However, the Mann Whitney test results showed p>0.05, meaning there was no significant relationship between the control and treatment groups, either on the MGI index or the number of Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria.

Conclusion: Vaname 2% shrimp chitosan gel has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.



  1. Nazir MA. Prevalence of periodontal disease, its association with systemic diseases and prevention. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2017;11(2):72-80.
  2. Carranza FA. Glickman’s Clinical Periodontology, 11th Edition. Philadelphia WB. Saunders Company, Philadelphia; 2010.
  3. Indonesian Ministry of Health. National Report. Basic Health Research 2013. Health Research And Development Agency Ministry Of Health Republic Of Indonesia; 2013.
  4. Soulissa AG. Relationship between pregnancy and periodontal disease. JPDGI. 2014;63(3):71-77
  5. American Academy of Periodontology. Types of Gum Disease. AAP Foundation, Michigan Ave. Chicago. 2016.
  6. Dharmawati IGAA, Mahadewa TGB, Widyadharma IPE. Antibacterial Activity of Lumbricus Rubellus Earthworm Extract Against Porphyromonas gingivalis as the Bacterial Cause of Periodontitis. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019;7(6):1032-1036.
  7. Lobene RR, Mankodi SM, Ciancio SG, Lamm RA, Charles CH, Ross NM. Correlations among gingival indices: a methodology study. J Periodontol. 1989;60(3):159-62.
  8. Diah WT, Nugraheni NE. Differences in Gingivitis Incidence Rates Between Pre-Pubertal and Puberty Ages in Malang City. E-Prodenta J of Dentistry. 2018;2(1):108-115.
  9. Mervrayana J, Rahmatini R, Bahar E. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Mouthwash Containing Chlorhexidine and Povidone Iodine against Streptococcus. J Kes Andalas. 2015;4(1):1-7.
  10. Hartomo BT, Firdaus FG. Utilization of Chitosan Biomaterial in the Field of Oral Surgery. J Baiturrahmah University Dentistry. 2020;5(1):63-70.
  11. Pratiwi R. Benefits of Chitin and Chitosan for Human Life. Oseana. 2014;39(1):35-4.
  12. Pramudya AW, Pramono BH, Husein RAJ, Tasminatun S. The Influence of Topical Chitosan on Chemical Burn Healing in Skin Rattus norvegicus. Mutiara Medika. 2012;12(3):177-187.
  13. Silva PV, Guedes DF, Nakadi FV, Pécora JD, Cruz-Filho AM. 2013. Chitosan: a new solution for removal of smear layer after root canal instrumentation. Int Endod J. 2013;46(4):332-8.
  14. Dharmawati IGAA, Mastra N, Supariani NND, Ratih GAM, Artini NPR. Effectiveness of Giving Chitosan on Interleukin-6 and Mallondhyaldehide Levels in Wistar Rats with Chronic Periodontitis. International Journal of Natural Science and Engineering. 2012;7(1):2549-6395.
  15. Hafdani FN, Sadeghinia N. A Review on Application of Chitosan as a Natural Antimicrobial. World Academy of Science. Engineering and Technology. 2011;50:1-7.
  16. Wardaniati RA, Setyaningsih S. Making Chitosan from Shrimp Shells and Its Application for Preserving Meatballs. Semarang: Diponegoro University; 2009.
  17. Kong M, Chen XG, Xing K, Park HJ. Antimicrobial properties of chitosan and mode of action: A state of the art review. International Journal Food Microbiology. 2010;144(1):51–63.
  18. Wahjuningrum DA, Setyabudia, Hadinatab D, Amaliab IT, Roi’fab RA, Juniarti DE. Antibacterial Effectiveness of Chitosan Solution on Streptococcus mutans. Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. 2022;18(2022):483-488.
  19. Hanifah N, Darmawan E. The Anti-Inflammatory of Chitosan of Shrimp Shell of Trisik Coastal in Rhemaoid Arthritis Rats Model. J Pharmaciana. 2015;5(2):177-184.

How to Cite

Dharmawati, I. G. A. A., Mastra, I. N. ., Supariani, N. D. ., & Ratih, G. A. M. . (2024). Antibacterial activity of vaname shrimp chitosan gel against Phorphyromonas gingivalis bacteria in mothers with periodontal disease. Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science, 18(1), 31–36.




Search Panel

I Gusti Agung Ayu Dharmawati
Google Scholar
IJBS Journal

I Nyoman Mastra
Google Scholar
IJBS Journal

Nyoman Dewi Supariani
Google Scholar
IJBS Journal

Gusti Ayu Made Ratih
Google Scholar
IJBS Journal