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Antibacterial activity of Spondias pinnata leaf extract on the in-vitro growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria


Background: Infectious diseases caused by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria infection continue to be a significant cause of health problems. Over the past decades, there has been a growing interest in Spondias pinnata research. It has also been demonstrated that the essential oil and leaf extract of Spondias pinnata has strong antibacterial properties. This study aims to assess and analyze the antibacterial activity of Spondias pinnata leaf extract on the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro.

Methods: The design of this research is an experimental study with a post-test-only control group design at the Biomedical Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Warmadewa, and the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana. The samples in this study were Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhimurium bacteria in which antibacterial activity of Spondias pinnata leaf extract was tested by using the Kirby-Bauer method.

Results: The active compounds contained in the extract of Spondias pinnata leaf include saponins, phenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. Antibacterial activity of 60% extract concentration on Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans) had a strong inhibitory effect. Antibacterial activity of 40% and 60% extract concentrations on Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium) had moderate inhibitory effects.

Conclusion: Spondias pinnata leaf extract had antibacterial activity potential on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, aligning with its increased concentration.



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How to Cite

Suryanditha, P. A., Widhidewi, N. W. ., Paramasatiari, A. A. A. L. ., & Wedari, N. L. P. H. . (2024). Antibacterial activity of Spondias pinnata leaf extract on the in-vitro growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science, 18(1), 90–94.




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Putu Arya Suryanditha
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Ni Wayan Widhidewi
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Anak Agung Ayu Lila Paramasatiari
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Ni Luh Putu Harta Wedari
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