Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science Open Access Journal of Biology, Pharmacology, Medicine, Chemistry, Biochemistry en-US <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br /><span>This work is licensed under a </span><a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a><span>.</span></p> (Putra Manuaba) (Dr. Arul Kandasamy) Thu, 11 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Soil-transmitted helminths infection in pregnant women with anemia: a systematic review <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><strong><span lang="EN-ID" style="color: #0e101a;">Background:</span></strong><span lang="EN-ID" style="color: #0e101a;"> Soil-transmitted helminths are widespread and grow well in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. It is one of the predispositions to anemia for pregnant women during pregnancy. This condition has long-term adverse effects on mothers and their children, causing the need for serious discussion and treatment. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><strong><span lang="EN-ID" style="color: #0e101a;">Methods:</span></strong><span lang="EN-ID" style="color: #0e101a;"> This systematic review uses pre-existing research by collecting data from valid sources such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, and NCBI, using the inclusion and exclusion criteria that have been determined. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><strong><span lang="EN-ID" style="color: #0e101a;">Results:</span></strong><span lang="EN-ID" style="color: #0e101a;"> Based on the vast amount of research that has previously been conducted, it was found that there is a close relationship involving the soil-transmitted helminth infection and various types of worms infecting pregnant women, which causes anemia. Pregnant women need nutrients and increased blood volume during pregnancy. However, the infection interferes with the absorption of micronutrients in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in impaired nutrient transport between the woman and her unborn child. </span></p> <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><strong><span lang="EN-ID" style="color: #0e101a;">Conclusion:</span></strong><span lang="EN-ID" style="color: #0e101a;"> Soil-transmitted helminth infection is a predisposing factor for anemia in pregnant women and has long-term adverse effects for both mother and child.</span></p> Dianawaty Amiruddin, Arifi Jauhary Su’dan, Firdaus Hamid, Aldian Irma Amaruddin Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 22 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Airway involvement and mechanical ventilation in Steven Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis management <p>Steven-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are severe drug allergic reactions characterized by skin and mucosal membrane detachments. Most of the literature focuses only on the skin and ocular mucosal damage, but more severe and life-threatening mucosal damage may actually occur in the respiratory tract. This airway involvement may cause an acute complication, e.g. acute respiratory failure, and chronic complications, e.g. bronchiolitis organizing pneumonia, bronchiectasis, and restrictive bronchiolitis. The presence of airway involvement in SJS/TEN requires a more detailed examination, ranging from examination of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT), to fiberoptic bronchoscopy done by a skilled clinician to determine the presence of bronchial epithelial detachment. A higher percentage of skin and mucosal detachment is associated with a greater need for mechanical ventilation. Male sex, age, low serum bicarbonate, high serum urea, and higher amount of infiltrate on chest X-rays are also associated with a higher risk for mechanical ventilation in patients with SJS/TEN. The general indications for intubation and mechanical ventilation in patients with SJS/TEN are respiratory failures, inability to clear the airway, shock, neurologic disorder, and uncontrollable pain. More specific indications for intubation and mechanical ventilation are oral involvement with an initial total body surface area (TBSA) during hospital admission was ≥70%, or progression of TBSA ≥15% in the first 3 days of hospitalization, or neurological disorders, or documented airway involvement based on direct laryngoscopy examination.</p> Benny Supono, Leonardo, Sieny Veronica Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Calf muscle evaluation during rehabilitation after flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer in neglected achilles tendon rupture: A case report <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>: </strong>Neglected achilles tendon rupture is generally defined as a rupture with a delay of more than 4 weeks prior to diagnosis or treatment. Difficulties in management make it one of the challenging problems in orthopedic practice. They have a greater tendency to develop complications and slightly poorer functional outcomes than patients with an acute rupture.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong><strong>: </strong>This case report features a case of 30 years old female with 3 months of neglected achilles tendon rupture after landing in the wrong position while playing badminton. The patient complains of continuous pain and inability to move her ankle downward, making walking difficult. On physical examination and CT imaging, we found achiles tendon rupture with significant gap and calf muscle atrophy. The patient was then managed operatively by debridement and tendon repair with flexor halucis longus tendon transfer.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Follow up 3 months post-operative, found a difference in calf muscle circumference in both legs. At the same time, there is still an improvement in active ROM ankle plantarflexion and positive single heel raise test on the affected side. The functional outcome measured by ATRS obtained 80 points, and AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scales with a value of 91 points.</p> <p><strong>Discussion</strong><strong>: </strong>With several advantages, FHL tendon transfer is the currently used technique for neglected cases of achiles tendon rupture. Despite long immobilization will induce other complications. Good operative techniques and accelerated rehabilitation are still recommended to gain good functional outcomes for the patient.</p> I Wayan Subawa, I Putu Arya Agung Pratama, I Gusti Ngurah Bagus Andika Pramana Copyright (c) 2022 Fri, 09 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Overview of findings on radiographic examination of sialography in patients with sialolithiasis: case serial <p><strong>Background</strong>: Sialolithiasis is the most common salivary gland disease. Salivary gland disease usually occurs in middle age, with an incidence of 12 in 1000 in the adult population. The peak incidence is between the ages of 30 and 50. Sialolithiasis generally occurs in the submandibular gland. Sialoliths can be single or multiple. Diagnosis of sialolithiasis can be based on clinical examination or simple supporting examination in the form of sialography.</p> <p><strong>Case Report</strong>: There were 3 patients with the main complaint of pain in the lower jaw area with similar symptoms, such as swelling and discomfort every time they chewed food. In all three patients, conventional plain radiographs were examined, namely Skull AP photos, followed by conventional radiological examinations using water-soluble contrast media known as sialography. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Correct diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment for the patient. Plain AP skull radiographs can be used as an early indication of the presence or absence of sialolith images, although they may not be visible if they are relatively small. Furthermore, sialography examination can become the gold standard in determining the location and size of sialoliths. In these three cases, an opacity or filling defect, accompanied by a dilatation of the proximal duct and even narrowing of the distal lumen of the duct, indicates either partial or total obstruction. An ultrasound examination was performed to confirm the diagnosis. In all three cases, it was found that there was indeed a hyperechoic surrounded by clear <em>anechoic</em> (saliva), thus suggesting a sialolithiasis.</p> Ida Ayu Kemala Wasita Manuaba, I Made Dwijaputra Ayusta, Putu Patriawan Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 29 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Identification of active chemical compounds and potential antibacterial snail mucus (Achatina fulica) on bacteria Enterococcus foecalis causes of periodontitis <p><strong>Background: </strong>A chemical compound is a chemical compound present in a natural source that gives it the special properties and characteristics of the plant or animal source. Snail slime is one of the traditional medicines from animals that is used by the community as a traditional medicine for healing minor wounds and toothaches. The aim of this study was to identify the active chemical compounds and antibacterial potential of snail mucus against the bacteria <em>E. foecalis</em> that causes periodontitis.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>True experiment laboratory research method which is carried out by laboratory analysis of snail mucus to obtain chemical elements, the content of compounds contained in a test sample. The content of active compounds based on the Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) test.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The average content of heparan sulfate with four repetitions was 16.45 mg/100g, Acharan sulfate 21.33 mg/100g, protein achasin 102.22 mg/100g, Glycoconyugat 88.6 mg/100g, Ion Ca2+ 86.2 mg/100g, Beta agglutinins 85.22 mg/100g. Toxicity test was carried out with four repetitions with concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, and 12.5%. And the lowest results of the toxicity test were at a concentration of 100% with a value of 0.171, while at a concentration of 50% 0.302, 25% 0.453, and 12.5% 0.768, for bacteria <em>E. Foecalis</em> with an inhibitory power of 23.15 mm, the category was very strong<strong>. </strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The active chemical content in snail mucus is Acharan sulfate, achasin protein, Glycoconyugat, Ca2+ ion, Beta agglutinin, and the antibacterial potential of snail mucus against <em>E. foecalis</em> bacteria is very strong.</p> I Gusti Agung Ayu Putu Swastini, Ni Nengah Sumerti, Ni Ketut Ramini, Wayan Juniarsana, I Ketut Suardana, Ida Ayu Made Sri Arjani, Ida Ayu Dewi Kumala Ratih, Regina Tedjasulaksana Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 10 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The relationship between follistatin and sarcopenia in elderly <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Sarcopenia is a multifactorial condition characterized by progressive and comprehensive mass loss accompanied by skeletal muscle strength or function. It can be triggered by physical inactivity, hormonal changes, energy, protein intake, oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. The state of inactivity underlying sarcopenia is related to follistatin levels.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Posyandu or Elderly Associations in Denpasar City with subjects aged ≥60 years old started from January 2021 to September 2021. The data collected were anthropometric measurements, muscle mass, grip strength, walking speed and serum follistatin levels. Sarcopenia was diagnosed based on the AWGS criteria. Bivariate analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney analysis to determine the difference in the mean of the independent variables and the Spearman's test to determine the relationship between sarcopenia and follistatin levels. </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>75 subjects were selected, and 15 (20%) subjects were diagnosed with sarcopenia. The results of the Spearman correlation test of upper arm circumference, waist circumference, calf circumference, SMI, walking speed, hand grip strength and follistatin levels only found a significant negative relationship between waist circumference and follistatin levels r= -0,309, p= 0,016. No differences in mean follistatin levels with sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia group p= 0,516. There was no significant relationship between follistatin levels and sarcopenia p= 0,615. </p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is no correlation between follistatin levels and sarcopenia in the elderly. However, follistatin is inversely correlated with waist circumference.</p> I Gusti Putu Suka Aryana, Ida Bagus Putu Putrawan, Ni Ketut Rai Purnami, RA Tuty Kuswardhani, I Nyoman Astika Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 29 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship between the degree of medulla spinalis retraction and motor function in experimental animals <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Spinal cord trauma can cause partial or total damage to the brain's and spinal cord's connection. The effects of spinal cord injury will affect motor function even if there is a severe injury, and in a longer duration, it will cause death. Medulla spinalis retraction can cause clinical abnormalities, especially in motor function.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study consisted of three groups of male Wistar rats (<em>Rattus norvegicus</em>). Each group was subjected to 15%, 25% and 37.5% retractions for 1 minute, 3 minutes and 5 minutes, respectively. After that, an assessment was carried out with the footprint test and forced swim test. Data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: This study had 27 samples of male Wistar rats which were divided into 3 groups. In the 15%, 25% and 37.5% retractions treatment with a duration of 3 minutes and 5 minutes, all samples died. Retraction of 15% of the diameter of the medulla spinalis in 1 minute does not cause motor function disorders. Statistically, there is no significant difference in the degree of medulla spinalis retraction and motor function on the footprint test and forced swim test (<em>p</em> = 0.102).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The medulla spinalis retraction of less than 15% with a duration of less than 1 minute will not cause motor function impairment. If more than 15% retraction with more than 1 minute will cause motor function impairment and death, this relationship is not statistically significant.</p> Novi Firman Syah, Nasrullah Mustamir, Muhammad Ihwan Kusuma, Willy Adhimarta, Joko Hendarto Copyright (c) 2022 Tue, 27 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Physiotherapy Rehabilitation Management on Phase I of Post Operative Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Case Report <p><strong>Background:</strong> An anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) phase I is critical for the patient to improve knee pain and range of motion (ROM), knee functions, and prevent excessive inflammation and muscle atrophy. This study aims to evaluate the physiotherapy interventions to improve the pain, ROM, muscle atrophy, and knee function following ACLR phase I.</p> <p><strong>Case Description: </strong>In July 2022, a 22-year-old female basketball athlete injured her right knee while running-pivoting movement during practice. The patient received ACLR on September 22, 2022, following an MRI and physiotherapy examinations. On October 14, 2022, the patient began receiving three times physiotherapy programs weekly. Until November 11, 2022, she complained of having trouble bending and straightening her knee. Although there was no increment in leg muscle circumference of 20 cm above the right patella (RP), there were increments in muscle circumferences of 1.3 cm at 10 cm above the RP, 1.1 cm at 5 cm above the RP, 1.2 cm at 10 cm below the RP, and 1.5 cm at 20 cm below the RP. After three times interventions, we found changes 5<sup>o</sup> of knee flexion, 2 points of tenderness VAS, 5-28 points of KOOS score, and 10 points of Lysholm’s score.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The physiotherapy interventions improved the pain, ROM, leg muscle circumference, and knee function in the ACLR phase I patient. This case report study could be a reference for further experimental study.</p> I Putu Gde Surya Adhitya, Ari Wibawa, Abdurrasyid, I Gusti Ngurah Wien Aryana, Muhammad Adrian Putra Rachman, Ni Luh Veni Rahayu, Ni Komang Mega Junianti, Emily Devina Kartawijaya, Tabita Febyola Wijaya Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The association of age, gender, tumor site, and smoking habit with histopathologic types of colorectal carcinoma patients in Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia <p><strong>Background: </strong>Colorectal carcinoma is the world's third most common type of cancer. The incidence in India is around 7/100,000. From GLOBOCAN data, the incidence of colorectal cancer in Indonesia is 17.2 per 100,000 adult population, with a mortality of 8.4% of all cancer cases. Several parameters were related to the risk of colorectal carcinoma. This study aims to evaluate the association of age, gender, tumor site, and smoking habit with histopathologic types of colorectal carcinoma patients in Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 158 cases of colorectal carcinoma using a descriptive categorical sampling technique at Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia, from January-March 2022. The variables assessed in this study were age, gender, tumor site, smoking habit, and histopathologic types of colorectal carcinoma. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 22 for Windows.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 158 cases of colorectal carcinoma. According to age, most patients were 45-60 years old (41.1%), while 18-44 years and over 60 years had almost the same proportion. In this study, most of the tumors were found in the distal part, namely the rectum (30.4%), rectosigmoid (18.4%) and sigmoid (17.1%). Most of the subjects were smokers (78.5%). Meanwhile, according to the histological type, 85.4% were adenocarcinomas, followed by mucinous adenocarcinomas (13.3%) and signet ring cell types (1.3%). There is no significant relationship between age, gender, tumor location, and smoking habits with the histopathological type of colorectal carcinoma (p&gt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is no significant relationship between age, gender, tumor location, and smoking habits with the histopathological type of colorectal carcinoma.</p> Yossy Luther, Warsinggih, Firdaus Hamid, Julianus Aboyaman Uwuratuw, Erwin Syarifuddin, Prihantono Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 21 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The comparison of mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) and mitral annular systolic velocity (Sm) in determining subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus <p><strong>Background: </strong>Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an independent factor in increasing the risk of heart failure in the absence of coronary heart disease and hypertension. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) as the gold standard in determining subclinical left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction is not available on all echocardiographic tools and requires good-quality images. Mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) and mitral annular peak systolic velocity (Sm) are simpler, faster, and widely available method that can determine left ventricular systolic dysfunction regardless of image quality.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study involved 72 asymptomatic T2DM patients, divided into two groups, patients with subclinical left ventricular systolic dysfunction (GLS &gt;-18%) and normal systolic function (GLS ≤-18%). GLS was obtained from the mean of 18 left ventricular segments on the apical 4-chamber, 3-chamber and 2-chamber images. MAPSE was obtained on the septal and lateral sides of the mitral annulus using M-mode on apical 4-chamber view, while Sm was obtained using tissue doppler imaging (TDI).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study included 72 asymptomatic T2DM patients, 34 samples (47.2%) were found with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, lateral TDI Sm had the highest area under the curve (AUC), it was 0.85, followed by average TDI Sm was 0.83 and average MAPSE was 0.81. The cut-off value of average TDI Sm &lt;7.425 cm/s had the best sensitivity and specificity, 82.4% and 81.6%, while cut-off value of average MAPSE &lt;13.4 mm had sensitivity of 76.5% and specificity of 73.7%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>TDI Sm had better accuracy than MAPSE in determining subclinical LV systolic dysfunction in T2DM patients. However, both of them can be used as alternative diagnostic methods of GLS.</p> Bagus Made Indrata Saputra, Ida Bagus Rangga Wibhuti, Luh Oliva Saraswati Suastika, Ni Made Ayu Wulan Sari Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 27 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Simple clean water treatment with double pots diffuser method in Lumbung Kauh village, Selemadeg Barat, Tabanan district, Bali, Indonesia <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The prevalence of improvement clean water services for urban areas yearly shows an increase of 40% to 50% in largest and 20%-30% in district. In other words, the level of water pollution is increasing. Alleviating poverty and unsafe water takes a strategic approach. Double pot diffuser method as a simple clean water treatment tool to improve water quality</p> <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The objective of this study is analysing the double pot diffuser method as a simple clean water treatment tool to improve water quality</p> <p><strong>Method and result:</strong> The data was collected two times (before- after) in control and double pot diffuser as an experiment. Statistical analysis, including univariate and bivariate analysis, was done using SPSS 23. A normality test was carried out, and the Mann<em>-Whitney</em> method was used to asses the difference in results between the experiment and control. The non-parametric test results showed that in the experimental group there was a difference between the results of the examination of biological parameters of the water (E.coli, coliform) and turbidity parameters, before and after the experiment with p-value 0.001. In the control group, the results revealed no difference between the results of the examination of water biological parameters and water turbidity before and after the experiment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Double pot diffuser is recommended to residents because it has been proven to improve the water quality in <em>gumleng</em>. Draining and cleaning <em>gumleng </em>once a week is also recommended to prevent sedimentation from dissolving and re-polluting the water.</p> Ni Made Marwati, Ni Ketut Rusminingsih, I Made Bulda Mahayana, I Nyoman Gede Suyasa, I Ketut Aryana, Anysiah Elly Yulianti Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 All-inside vs. conventional method in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction: systematic review and meta-analysis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) was prevalent among sports, with a female predominance. If not treated properly, ACL deficiency knee can cause significant morbidity and long-term impairment. The most often utilized reconstructive methods in modern clinical practice were conventional and all-inside treatments. This study compared all-inside and conventional ACL reconstruction methods through systematic review and meta-analysis.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>The searching protocol was carried out using several databases, such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar, to identify relevant topics in May 2022. This study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2020 (PRISMA) guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: There were 17 studies included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. All of the reviewed studies were written in English. Most of the included studies were carried out in Europe. Theafollowaup duration range from 3amonthsato 4ayears. The total participants were 2329 patients with ACL reconstructions. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall analysis, with the all-inside technique having higher Lysholm score outcomes than the conventional technique (MD = 1.87; 95% CI = 0.41–3.33; p &lt; 0.05)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>All-inside technique has higher Lysohlm score outcome than the conventional technique. There is no significant difference in pain and IKDC score between both groups.</p> Su Djie To Rante, Asep Santoso, Tangkas Sibarani, Dwikora Novembri Utomo Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 11 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Congenital heart disease, gastrointestinal defect, and low birth weight as the contributing factors for three-year survival rates among Down syndrome children in Indonesia <p><strong>Background: </strong>Down syndrome is the most common congenital chromosomal anomaly and occurs in about 1-10:1.000 live births globally. Various reports stated an increasing survival rate because of advanced medical and surgical care. The highest mortality in Down syndrome children takes place in the first three years of life with its comorbidities being congenital heart disease and gastrointestinal defect. Low birth weight was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to normal children and was one of the contributing factors to higher mortality. This study aims to examine three-year survival rates among children with Down syndrome.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We included all medical records with Down syndrome children in Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia during 2013 to 2016. We excluded all medical records with inadequate data. Three-year survival rates were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and hazard ratio was analyzed using Cox regression.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The 1-year, 2-years and 3-year survival rates in Down syndrome children were 80.1%, 72.4%, and 70.8% respectively. Overall, 45% of births with Down syndrome had congenital heart disease, 11% had a gastrointestinal defect, and 9% had both congenital heart disease and gastrointestinal defect. Three-year survival rates in Down syndrome children with congenital heart disease was 61.4% (78/127) and 81.7% (89/109) (p=0.001). Three-year survival with gastrointestinal defect was 47.8% (22/46) and without was 76.3% (145/190) (p&lt;0.001). Furthermore, three-year survival with low birth-weight was 64.6% (42/65) and without was 71.6% (111/155) (p=0.328).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Congenital heart disease and gastrointestinal defect lower the survival rate in Down syndrome children.</p> Tiona Romauli Simamora, Suryono Yudha Patria, Setya Wandita Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Modified sitting grinder reduces complaints of musculoskeletal disorders, workload, and increases work productivity of blacksmiths in Tabanan Regency, Bali-Indonesia <p><strong>Background</strong>: Blacksmith is one of the small industries that is developing in Gubug Village, Tabanan Regency. One of the processes in manufacturing household utensils in the form of small knives, large knives, sickles, and machetes will be faced with a grinder. In this process, the worker holds a vibrating grinder weighing more than 1.5 kg. Working with heavy loads and being exposed to vibration for a long time is an additional burden that will cause musculoskeletal complaints, as well as diseases such as Raynaud's Syndrome, Tenosynovitis, and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in workers. This study aimed to determine the effect of Sitting Grinding Modification on Reducing Complaints of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs), Workload, and Increasing Work Productivity of Blacksmiths in Gubug Tabanan Village.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This research is an experimental study with treatment by subject design. The population is 40 people from 10 industries. Sample selection by simple random sampling with a table of random numbers. The minimum number of samples was calculated using the Colton formula to determine the sample size to be 16 people. Data processing and analysis: Descriptive test for subject condition data includes age, weight, height, and body mass index. Normality test was performed on the data; a) physical environment includes air temperature, humidity, and noise), b). musculoskeletal complaints; c) workload; and d) work productivity. Difference test for data on musculoskeletal complaints, workload, and work productivity using parametric statistical tests (different test paired samples t-test at significance level = 0.05) in treatment I and treatment II on data that is normally distributed, and if it is not normal, non-parametric statistical tests were performed (Wilcoxon's difference test at significance level = 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean age of the subjects was 39.00±8.52 years, body weight was 65.31±6.7.57 kg, height was 164.69±4.40 cm and the body mass index was 23.94±2.05. kg/m<sup>2</sup>. There is no difference in air temperature and humidity, there is a decrease in noise of 0.81%. There was a decrease in musculoskeletal complaints by 0.15%, a decrease in workload by 0.19%, an increase in productivity by 1.06%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> There is a significant decrease between musculoskeletal complaints, workload and noise before and after the use of the seated grinder (p&lt;0.05), and there is a significant increase between work productivity before and after using modified sitting grinder.</p> Ida Ayu Made Sri Arjani, Cok Dewi Widhya Hana Sundari, Nyomam Mastra, I Made Bulda Mahayana, I Gusti Ayu Made Aryasih, Ni Made Marwati, I Gusti Ayu Swastini Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 10 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Nano extract of Coriandrum sativum l (ketumbar seed) decrease malondialdehyde (MDA) and blood glucose, and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) in hyperglycaemic wistar rats <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: <em>Coriandrum sativum L</em> (<em>ketumbar seeds</em>) nano extract was prepared using chitosan as a nano extract framework and tripolyphosphate as a stabilizer by ionic gelatin method. This study aimed to reduce free radicals in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycaemic rats by administering <em>Coriandrum sativum L</em> nano extract as nano herbal.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Characterization of the resulting nano extract was performed using Fourier Transformation Infra-Red (FTIR). The ability of nano extract as antihyperglycemic on streptozotocin-induced rats was tested using the randomized post-test only control group design research by observing the levels of blood glucose, MDA, and SOD as markers of oxidative stress.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The phytochemical test showed that <em>Coriandrum sativum L</em> extracts contained polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids. Characterization with PSA strongly supports nano extract as a delivery system for bioactive substances with a zeta potential of -25.80 mV and a particle size of 455.20 nm. The result of the antihyperglycemic test showed that oral administration at a dose of 50 mg/Kg BW/day gave the best result for decreasing glucose blood and MDA, and increasing SOD level in hyperglycaemic rats. LCMS/MS analysis showed that in ethanol extract of <em>Coriandrum sativum L</em> are suspected to contain the 7 compounds: DL-Valine, indoline, 2-quinolinol, trans-tnrthole, luteolin, apigenin, linoliamide, and luteolinin are compounds known in to be able to lower blood glucose and malondialdehyde.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: <em>Coriandrum sativum L</em> (<em>ketumbar seeds</em>) nano extract was prepared using chitosan had potential to decrease MDA and blood glucose, and increase SOD level in hyperglycaemic rats.</p> Sri Wahjuni, Ida Ayu Raka Astitiasih, Ni Made Puspawati, Mustika Lahaya, A.A. Bawa Putra, Ida Bagus Putra Manuaba, Ahmad Fudholi Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 30 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Risk factors for decreased hand grip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at the Tabanan Public Health Center II <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The condition of decreased muscle mass and function in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2) will lead to a significant effect on the decline in quality of life. A commonly found manifestation of sarcopenia is the presence of a decrease in the strength of the hand grip. Other research showed a significant inverse relationship between the strength of the hand grip and DMT2. But to date, there are still few studies that assess the factors that cause a decrease in the strength of the hand grip in DMT2 patients. This study aims to evaluate risk factors that are related to the strength of the decrease in the strength of the hand grip in patients with DMT2.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Cross-sectional analytical research. The data was taken through interviews, physical examinations and data collection of laboratory examination results at the general polyclinic of the Tabanan Public Health Center II. The bivariate test used chi-square and the multivariate analysis with logistic regression was used in assessing the magnitude of influence between variables that have a meaningful relationship with HGS and looking for the magnitude of the<em> adjusted odd ratio</em> (AOR) value. </p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study discovered a strong correlation between age (p=0.002), body mass index (p=0.002), and fasting blood sugar levels (p=0.001) and hand grip strength. In the multivariate analysis, it was found that the relationship of age more than 50 years to the decrease in hand grip strength was greater than high fasting blood sugar levels, while no significant relationship was found on excess nutritional status in this multivariate analysis (p=0.44).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Age, body mass index, and fasting blood sugar levels are the risk factors for decreased hand grip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.</p> I Putu Gede Putra Darmawan, Ayu Agung Pradnya Paramitha, Ida Bagus Indra Wibawa Putrawan Copyright (c) 2022 Thu, 10 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 What are the common uropathogens susceptible antimicrobials for nephrostomy patients? <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Surgical procedures, such as nephrostomy, prone the patient to postoperative infection. Moreover, multidrug-resistant uropathogens emerge due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics and are now a progressive problem worldwide. Distribution mapping of uropathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in nephrostomy patients gives urologists a clearer picture to aid in better management of their patients.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To identify the distribution of uropathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in nephrostomy patients.</p> <p><strong>Materials &amp; methods</strong>: We conducted a retrospective observational review of the medical records, including all adult patients undergoing nephrostomy from 1<sup>st</sup> January 2020 until 31<sup>st</sup> December 2021 in a tertiary hospital in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In each patient with a positive urine culture result, uropathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility test reports were recorded and evaluated separately.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of 100 patients, 76 demonstrated positive urine culture (76%), with 78 isolates from 23 strains. Almost all strains were bacterial (22/23; 95.65%), but one was fungi (1/23; 4.35%). <em>Escherichia coli</em> was the most common uropathogens from the isolates (31/78; 39.74%), followed by <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> (10/78; 12.82%) and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> (6/78; 7.69%). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests of 33 antibiotics and 2 antifungals were carried out. Most reports showed susceptibility to Meropenem (11.78%), followed by Gentamicin (10.21%), amikacin (8.12%), and Nitrofurantoin (7.07%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The common uropathogens in nephrostomy patients were <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em>. The common susceptible antimicrobials included Meropenem, Gentamicin, amikacin, and Nitrofurantoin.</p> Iwan Indra Putra, Tanaya Ghinorawa Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of liquid waste in weaving home industry at Nusa Penida, Klungkung, Bali, Indonesia <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The existence of regulations using clothing made from traditional Balinese fabrics cloth called “endek” has caused the demand for woven fabrics to increase. One of the traditional woven fabric handicrafts starting to be recognized and favored by the public is the Cepuk and Rangrang woven fabric from island of Nusa Penida. Currently, liquid waste from weaving home industry activities has not been processed. The purpose of the study was to measure the quality of liquid waste from the weaving home industry and compare it with the quality standards of liquid waste for businesses and or textile industry activities.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>This study was descriptive, conducted in Nusa Penida District, Klungkung Regency. The sample size was 25, taken by purposive sampling from nine craftsmen actively carrying out the production process with repetition three times. Measurement of liquid waste quality was carried out at the Laboratory of Panureksa Denpasar. The parameters examined are mandatory test parameters including physical parameters (temperature, TDS, TSS and color) and chemical parameters (total chromium, total ammonia, BOD<sub>5, </sub>COD, sulfide, oil and fat). Data analysis was carried out by comparing the measurement results with the Liquid Waste Quality Standards for Textile Industry Businesses and Activities according to Bali Governor Regulation 16 of 2016.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The results showed an average temperature of 27.48<sup>o</sup> C, TDS levels of 6,095.20 mg/L, TSS 1,090.76 mg/L and color 2,216.56 TCU scale. The chemical parameters showed average levels of total chromium 2.3912 mg/L, total ammonia 1.6068 mg/L, BOD<sub>5</sub> 675.84 mg/L, COD 1,286.72 mg/L, Sulfide 0.2395 mg/L, oil and fat 1,340 mg/L. Based on Bali Governor Regulation No. 16 of 2016, the parameters of temperature, total ammonia, Sulfide, Oil and Fat meet the quality standard requirements. While the parameters of TDS, TSS, color, total chrome, BOD and COD do not meet the quality standard requirements because it exceed the maximum allowable levels.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is recommended that weaving craftsmen carry out liquid waste treatment before disposal in the environment.</p> Cokorda Dewi Widhya Hana Sundari, Ida Ayu Made Sri Arjani, Luh Ade Wilan Krisna Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 10 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000